Why People Still Play the Lottery
Lottery has a long history in human society, beginning with the casting of lots for spiritual rewards and eventually evolving into a way to acquire material wealth. As early as the thirteenth century, European states began selling tickets in which a prize was awarded for numbers drawn at random from a container. In the modern era, state-run lotteries have flourished with the backing of the business community and the public. They raise billions in revenue and have shaped many cultures. Nevertheless, this popular form of gambling is often considered to be addictive and harmful for those who play it. In The Lottery, David Cohen writes that the popularity of lottery games has paralleled a decline in the financial security of working Americans. In the nineteen-seventies and eighties, inequality grew, job security vanished, pensions and health care costs rose, and for most people living in America, the national promise that hard work and education would make them better off than their parents was fading into memory.
In these circumstances, lottery proponents developed a new argument. As they were unable to convince voters that the proceeds of a lottery would float all of a state’s budget, they instead framed it as an alternative to tax increases and service cuts. Moreover, they promoted the fact that state lotteries were nonpartisan and supported a popular government service, usually education. This approach boosted public support and made the issue of addiction and exploitation less pressing.
Despite the fact that the chances of winning the lottery are extremely slim—statistically, it is more likely that you will be struck by lightning or win the Powerball jackpot than become a multimillionaire through normal means—people still continue to play. One explanation is that people feel a sense of obligation to participate, arguing that the money might help those in need or benefit local communities. In fact, some people even form syndicates to purchase tickets and share the small winnings.
While the lottery is often seen as a benevolent enterprise, studies have shown that it also promotes inequalities between rich and poor people, as well as between men and women. Moreover, the money raised is often spent on advertising and marketing, which is at cross-purposes with the social mission of the lottery.
In addition, research has shown that the percentage of players who are from low-income neighborhoods is disproportionately lower than its overall share of the population. In fact, the most significant source of state lottery revenues is from middle-income neighborhoods. This is particularly true for scratch-off games and daily numbers games, which are most often played in convenience stores.
As a result of these and other concerns, some states have begun to restrict the sale of certain types of lottery tickets. But as Cohen shows, such measures have not prevented a steady stream of state-wide revenue. In the end, however, it is the lottery’s elusive promise of a big jackpot that has proved its greatest appeal. As long as that dream persists, the lottery will remain popular.